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Solar Diameter by Solar Eclipses

Due to the astrophysical relevance of the constance or variability of the solar diameter, many efforts have been made to gain precise results. While conventional techniques of measuring the sun's angular diameter failed to yield the required accuracy, IOTA developed a sensitive method to determine small variations of the solar diameter. Some of the literature available online can be find in the following:

More literature about this subject can be found if carefully searching databases:

  • Eddy, J.A. and Boornazian, A.A., 1979. Secular decrease in the solar diameter, 1863–1953. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 11:437
  • Shapiro, I.I., 1980. Is the Sun Shrinking? Science, 208:51–53.
  • Dunham, D.W., Sophia S., Fiala, A.D., Herald, D. and Muller, P.M., 1980. Obvservations of a probable change in the solar radius between 1715 and 1979. Science, 210:1243–1245
  • Parkinson, J.H., Morrision, L.V. and Stephenson, F.R., 1980. The constancy of the solar diameter over the past 250 years. Nature, 288:548–551.
  • Gilliland, R.L., 1981. Solar radius variations over the past 265 years. The Astrophysical Journal, 248:1144–1155.
  • Sofia, S., Dunham. D.W., Dunham, J.B. and Fiala, A.D., 1983. Solar radius change between 1925 and 1979. Nature, 304:522–526

    Some other technologies to determine the solar diameter can be found here: Using drift-time measurements for the years 1990 to 2000 Wittmann and Bianda published the following paper:

    In The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 543, Issue 2, pp. 1007-1010 an article "On the Constancy of the Solar Diameter" by Emilio et al has been published.

    And finally please read the author's article about a solar eclipse expedition to Tunisia in October 2005, and see Torsten Schaefer's video of Baily's beads on this website:

    The use of the moon as a standard gauge by recording Baily's beads caused by the topography near the moon's rim requires the precise knowledge of the lunar limb. The observation of stellar occultations can refine the lunar profile better than any astronautic exploration, yet. Especially grazing occultations steadily improve the precision of the lunar profile in its polar regions. The MOONLIMB project of IOTA-ES (by D. Büttner) incorporates the data of lunar occultations into a new database of the lunar limb profile.

    Due to librations the lunar profile periodically changes. But during a solar eclipse the libration in latitude is always close to zero, while the longitude libration may have any value. Therefore the projected outline of the polar regions of the moon only slightly varies, while other regions may completely alter their appearance. This strongly preferes the polar regions for the analysis of the solar diameter.

    During a total or anular sun eclipse, the moon's polar regions are projected on the edges of the eclipse path. Another advantage is the slow proceeding of bead phenomena along the edge of this track. Besides the less accurate knowledge of the lunar profile far from the poles, Baily's beads observed from deep inside the eclipse path develop too rapidly for a sufficient time resolution. Any observer who records thoroughly timed Baily's beads from the edges of an eclipse path with video equipment can gain valuable data and contribute to the knowledge about the variability of the sun's dimensions.

    For more informations please contact Konrad Guhl.

    Measurements of Baily's beads are possible during annular and total solar eclipses. The table lists the expeditions to solar eclipses carried out in the 21st century by IOTA and IOTA/ES where beads measurements were made. The publications or reports on the expeditions based on the measurements are listed in the right column.
    Event-ddmmyyyy Location Expedition members Paper
    TSE04122002 AU D., J., & W. Dunham, D. Herald, R. Venable
    ASE03102005 ES, TN C. Sigismondi, P. Colona, P. Oliva, A. Selva, O. Canales, C. Perello, J. Rovira, M. Fernades-Ocana, C. schnabel, W. Strickling, S. Anderson, W. Rothe, T. Schäfer, K. Guhl Solar Physics Volume 258, Issue 2 pp 191-202
    TSE29032006 TK,EG K. Guhl, B. Thome, D. Dunham, W. Warren, A. Tegtmeier, C. Tegtmeier, O. Farago, C. Sigismondi, P. Colona Solar Physics Volume 258, Issue 2 pp 191-202
    ASE22092006 FG C. Sigismondi Solar Physics Volume 258, Issue 2 pp 191-202
    TSE01082008 RU,CN S, Andersson, M. Haupt, K. Guhl, W. Rothe, A. Selva, A. Massalle, M Fernandez-Ocana, C. Schnabel, R. Nugent, C. Herold, Solar Physics Volume 258, Issue 2 pp 191-202; JOA 2011-1;
    ASE15012010 N, UG, A. Tegtmeier, C. Tegtmeier, R. Nugent JOA 2011-4, JOA 2012-2
    ASE20052012 US T. George, S. Preston, D. Dunham, T. Redding, L. Flemming, E. Iverson, D. Breit, S. Bumgarner, C. Herold, C. Kitting, W. Morgan, R. Noltenius, R. Nugent, A. Tegtmeier, T. Swift, R. Venable JOA 2013-2
    TSE09032016 ID D. & J. Dunham, W. Hadiputrawan
    ASE01092016 TZ, MG A. Tegtmeier, C. Tegtmeier, E. Guhl, K. Guhl JOA 2016-04
    TSE21082017 US A.Tegtmeier, C. Tegtmeier, E. Guhl, K. Guhl JOA 2018-03
    TSE02072019 CL, AR J. Dunham, D Dunham, R. Nugent, E. Guhl, K. Guhl JOA 2020-02
    TSE2042023 AU E. Guhl, K. Guhl, L. Quaglia JOA 2023-4

    ASE = annular solar eclipse; TSE = total solar eclipse

    AR, AU, ES, TN, TK, EG, FG,RU, CN, IN, UG, US, TZ, MG, CL, are the two letter codes of the countries for observation